Every person learns differently, and no two students are alike in this regard. We all have distinct brains, and our experiences have an impact on how we learn in various ways. . Understanding various learning styles is a crucial component of teacher education, which is necessary for both aspiring and practicing educators to be ready to teach students every day. Teachers can gain knowledge from a variety of proven learning theories as they are ready to assist students in the classroom. Teachers that are knowledgeable about learning theories might adapt their classroom activities to accommodate various learning styles. This can help all pupils in achieving academic achievement. Learning theories give teachers models to create lessons that promote better learning by describing the circumstances and procedures through which learning takes place. These theories clarify the procedures humans use to interpret data and how they incorporate it into their mental models to transform it into new knowledge.
Constructivism: It is based on the belief that people learn by building new ideas, and that existing information and experiences serve as the foundation for interpreting the world. By adjusting incoming information through the prism of prior experience, knowledge is developed. Like cognitivism, constructivism emphasizes an individual’s internal thought process but makes no assumptions about how concepts will be used or what connections will be created. According to Ertmer & Newby constructivists do not share with cognitivists and behaviorists the belief that knowledge is mind-independent and can be “mapped” onto a learner. These mental representations are very subjective, and each person will have a different way of constructing information because learning is based on generating connections and developing concepts from existing knowledge.
Cognitivism: This idea of learning is based on Jean Piaget’s research, which claims that learning takes place through internal information processing as opposed to merely reacting to external stimuli. Processing and rearranging information within a network of previously learned knowledge results in learning. According to cognitivism, the teacher should stress reflection on experiences with metacognition, or thinking about one’s own mental processes. Long-term memory, also known as the schema, is where people acquire and store knowledge, in accordance with cognitive psychology. People not only store knowledge, but also categorize it, relate it to other categories, and develop a schema that helps in the retrieval of pertinent information when required (Clark, 2018). People develop new connections as a result of processing new information in light of their prior knowledge or schema their prior knowledge or schema.
Behaviorism: Behaviorism is based largely on the work of John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner. According to Ertmer & Timothy Newby, the behaviorist hypothesis holds that learning happens when inputs and responses are connected. Although knowledge is independent, it is solidified by rewards and penalties. These concepts of positive and negative reinforcement, which can come from unavoidable outcomes or the actions of another, are powerful tools for teaching and changing behavior. The core ideas of behaviorism include observed acts, the circumstances in which they are carried out, and the reinforcement of desired behaviors.
Learning theories are designed to assist teachers in comprehending the conditions and processes that facilitate learning and, consequently, to provide direction in creating the activities and settings that best support learning. Furthermore, these theories do not conflict with one another. Teachers can integrate parts from several theories in ways that fit our teaching methods and represent our best understanding of our pupils rather than having to completely adhere to one theory. To improve pupils’ recollection and recall, for instance, a teacher might implement components of cognitivism while also creating group activities that encourage peer-to-peer communication and social constructivism. Teachers may design courses and exercises that offer a suitable level of challenge to assist students in deepening their learning by using our knowledge of developmental phases.